Tapioca is a starch extracted from cassava (Manihot esculenta). This species is native to Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, from where the plant was spread by Portuguese and Spanish explorers to Africa, the Philippines and most of the West Indies, being now cultivated worldwide. It had and has many names, including cassava, manioc, aipim, bitter-cassava, boba, mandioca, macaxeira, manioca, tapioca plant, camote, yuca ˈjuːka) (not to be confused with yucca).
In India, the term “Tapioca” is used to represent the root of the plant (Cassava), rather than the starch. In Vietnam, it is called bột năng. In Indonesia, it is called singkong. In the Philippines, it is called sago.
The name tapioca is derived from the word tipi’óka, the name for this starch in the Tupí language of South America. This Tupí word refers to the process by which the starch is made edible.
However, as the word moved out of Brazil it came to refer to similar preparations made with other esculents.
Bamboo shoots or bamboo sprouts are the edible shoots (new bamboo culms that come out of the ground) of many bamboo species including Bambusa vulgaris and Phyllostachys edulis. They are used in numerous Asian dishes and broths. They are sold in various processed shapes, and are available in fresh, dried, and canned versions.
Black rice, also known as purple rice or forbidden rice, is a kind of sticky rice which is one of several black colored heirloom plants producing rice variants such as Indonesian black rice and Thai jasmine black rice. Black rice is high in nutritional value and contains 18 amino acids, iron, zinc, copper, carotene, anthocyanin and several important vitamins. The grain has a similar amount of fiber to brown rice and like brown rice, has a mild, nutty taste. In China, black rice is claimed to be good for kidney, stomach and liver; these claims have not been independently verified or established.
It is a deep black color and turns deep purple when cooked. Its dark purple color is primarily due to its anthocyanin content, which is higher by weight than that of other colored grains but more limited in the number of different anthocyanin species present. It is suitable for making porridge and it can also be used for making dessert, traditional Chinese black rice cake, bread and so on.
In China, noodles made from black rice have been produced. The California based bakery Food For Life Baking Company has also begun producing “Chinese Black Rice” bread with the deep purple color of cooked black rice.
Thai jasmine black rice is grown in Thailand. Jasmine rice gets its name for the fragrant jasmine scent it produces while being cooked. Black jasmine rice, while not as prevalent as the white and brown varieties, adds more vibrant color to meals, but it also provides additional health benefits.
Fertilised Eggs to bear chickens
Another method of fertilisation occurs among animals that normally reproduce sexually, through parthenogenesis: when the gamete of a female is not fertilised by a male, yet produces viable and unique offspring that are not clones. Only DNA from the mother is inherited, but it is not identical to her. Normal eggs of the mother become fertilised, without sperm, and development proceeds normally. This occurs naturally in several species and may be induced in others through a chemical or electrical stimulus. In 2004, Japanese researchers led by Tomohiro Kono succeeded after 457 attempts to merge the ova of two mice, the result of which developed normally into a mouse. This was achieved by blocking certain proteins that would normally prevent the possibility.