No use looking at the exterior of jet fighter technology. It is the interior that matters. With so much information on the Internet, I can easily design an Air Defence System against all your capabilities, with easily available solutions provided by Defence contractors, even modifying my own technologies to break every barrier. Forget about American Technology, it is lost and gone. America has interfered with so many countries so they can sell their arms will now have to sit back and be silenced, I would rather buy from Isreal or USSR where there is no technology breech.
US=No more Nuclear deterent.
– Contributed by Oogle.
“WIKI” STYLE ESPIONAGE LANDS $300 BILLION DOLLAR SUPER-PLANE PLANS
“Another spy disaster like Pollard, shoved under the rug too long due to pressure from the powerful Israeli lobby.”
“out there,” available to any potential rival, military or commercial. At best, it could be considered a $300 billion dollar bank robbery, by American standards, nothing new in today’s financial world.
Every weapon design, yes, our stealth aircraft capabilities and our NATO battle plans were among the truckload of papers Pollard sold to Israel, a country where he is considered a national hero. Pollard may have been our last “paper” spy. Everything today is electronic and spies who steal American secrets can be compared to unruly chatroom members or video game enthusiasts.
On 5 January 2001, Raptor 4005 flew with the Block 3.0 software, which was the first combat-capable avionics version. In June 2009, Increment 3.1 was tested at Edwards Air Force Base. This provided a basic ground-attack capability through Synthetic Aperture Radar mapping, Electronic attack and the GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb. The Increment 3.1 Modification Team with the 412th Test Wing received the Chief of Staff Team Excellence Award for upgrading 149 Raptors. The fleet upgrade should start at the end of 2011. An additional $808 million will be spent in 2013 to implement the 3.1 upgrade. The first upgraded aircraft were delivered in early 2012. Increment 3.2 was to add an improved SDB capability, an automatic ground collision avoidance system for low level operations and enable use of the AIM-9X Sidewinder and AIM-120D AMRAAM missiles. However, a helmet mounted cueing system has been deferred by technical issues. Increment 3.2 was expected to be fielded in FY15, possibly including the Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL). In July 2009 the USAF announced the modification of three business jets with the interim Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN) to allow communication between F-22s and other platforms until MADL is installed.
In March 2010, the USAF accelerated software portions of the Increment 3.2 upgrades to be completed in FY 2013, other upgrades will be completed later. Upgrading the first 183 aircraft to the 3.2 upgrade is estimated to cost $8 billion. In May 2009, Gen. Norton A. Schwartz and Air Force Secretary Michael B. Donley gave testimony to Congress that this would be paid for through the early retirement of legacy fighters. A total of 249 fourth-generation fighters were retired during Fiscal Year 2010. On 16 September 2009, Gates said “Our commitment to this aircraft is underscored by the 6 and-a half billion dollars… to upgrade the existing F-22 fleet to be fully mission-capable.” The USAF opened the Raptor enhancement, development and integration (REDI) contract to other bidders in January 2011 with a total budget of $16 billion.
On 18 November 2011, the upgrade contract with Lockheed Martin was increased by $1.4 billion to a maximum value of $7.4 billion. This increment opens the way for further upgrades in 2012. Lockheed Martin has proposed upgrades to add capabilities from the newer F-35. Elements such as MADL are delayed until the F-35 program is completed to reduce risk. One upgrade from the F-35 is new high-durability stealth coatings to lower maintenance. The Ada software language was blamed for slow progress and increased costs on the program, leading to a reorganization in 2011. Increment 3.2A in 2014 focuses on electronic warfare, communications and identification. Increment 3.2B in 2017 will support the AIM-9X and AIM-120D missiles. Increment 3.2C in 2019 may migrate some avionics to an open platform, allowing features to be added by various companies. Lockheed Martin is working on upgrading the AN/AAR-56 Missile Launch Detector (MLD) to provide situational awareness and defensive Infrared Search and Track similar to the F-35’s SAIRST. The current upgrade schedule is: Increment 3.1 now entering service adds capabilities for SDB, SAR, and electronic attack. Update 4 in 2012 will add a rudimentary capability for the AIM-120D. Increment 3.2A will be fielded in 2014 with Link 16 and electronic warfare improvements. Update 5 in 2015 will add an initial capability for the AIM-9X. In 2016 the fleet will be upgraded to 36 Block 20 training aircraft and 149 Block 30/35 operational aircraft. Increment 3.2B in 2017 will add full capability for the air to air missiles, and improved geolocation. This schedule has slipped seven years because of “requirements and funding instability”. Because of this delay the upgrade will be applied to fielded aircraft that have already consumed a significant fraction of their useful airframe lifespan. Increment 3.2C is still being defined. Features that are not currently planned for upgrades include: Adding in the previously planned side-mounted AESA radar arrays infrared search and track (IRST) helmet-mounted sight Powered air to surface missiles or the GBU-53 Small Diameter Bomb II in order to engage moving ground targets.
The Raptor is designed with a lifespan of 30 years and 8000 flight hours, but investigations are being made for upgrades to extend this. The F-22 is expected to eventually be replaced by the fighter from the Next Generation Air Dominance program. While no definitive cause has been found for the frequent oxygen deprivation issues that have killed at least one pilot, the F-22 will be upgraded with a ten pound backup oxygen system, software upgrades and oxygen sensors to allow the pilots to operate normally in spite of the problem.
The F-22’s avionics include BAE Systems E&IS radar warning receiver (RWR) AN/ALR-94, AN/AAR 56 Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet MAWS (Missile Approach Warning System) and the Northrop Grumman AN/APG-77 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar. The AN/ALR-94 is a passive receiver system to detect radar signals; composed of more than 30 antennas blended into the wings and fuselage that provide all around coverage. It was described by Tom Burbage, former F-22 program head at Lockheed Martin, as “the most technically complex piece of equipment on the aircraft.” It has a greater range (250+ nmi) than the radar, allowing the F-22 to limit its own radar emissions to maximise stealth. As a target approaches, the receiver can cue the AN/APG-77 radar to track the target with a narrow beam, which can be as focused down to 2° by 2° in azimuth and elevation. Two personnel in white apparel handing a radar The AN/APG-77 AESA radar The AN/APG-77 radar, designed for air superiority and strike operations, features a low-observable, active-aperture, electronically-scanned array that can track multiple targets in any weather. The AN/APG-77 changes frequencies more than 1,000 times per second to lower interception probability. Additionally, radar emissions can be focused in an electronic-attack capability to overload enemy sensors. The radar’s information is processed by two Raytheon Common Integrated Processor (CIP)s. Each CIP can process 10.5 billion instructions per second and has 300 megabytes of memory. Information can be gathered from the radar and other onboard and offboard systems, filtered by the CIP, and offered in easy-to-digest ways on several cockpit displays, enabling the pilot to remain on top of complicated situations.
The F-22s avionics software has some 1.7 million lines of code, the majority involving processing data from the radar. The radar has an estimated range of 125–150 miles, though planned upgrades will allow a range of 250 miles (400 km) or more in narrow beams. In 2007, tests by Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, and L-3 Communications enabled the AESA system of a Raptor to act like a WiFi access point, able to transmit data at 548 megabits per second and receive at gigabit speed; this is far faster than the Link 16 system used by US and allied aircraft, which transfers data at just over 1 Mbit/s. The F-22 has a threat detection and identification capability comparative with the RC-135 Rivet Joint. The F-22’s stealth allows it to safely operate far closer to the battlefield, compensating for the reduced capability. The F-22 is capable of functioning as a “mini-AWACS”, however the radar is less powerful than dedicated platforms such as the E-3 Sentry. The F-22 allows its pilot to designate targets for cooperating F-15s and F-16s, and determine whether two friendly aircraft are targeting the same aircraft. This radar system can sometimes identify targets “many times quicker than the AWACS”. The radar is capable of high-bandwidth data transmission; conventional radio “chatter” can be reduced via these alternative means. The IEEE-1394B data bus developed for the F-22 was derived from the commercial IEEE-1394 “FireWire” bus system. Sensor fusion combines data from all onboard and offboard sensors into a common view to prevent the pilot from being overwhelmed. In a critical article former Navy Secretary John Lehman wrote “[a]t least [the F-22s] are safe from cyberattack. No one in China knows how to program the ’83 vintage IBM software that runs them.” Former Secretary of the USAF Michael Wynne blamed the use of the DoD’s Ada as a reason for cost overruns and schedule slippages on many major military projects, including the F-22 Raptor.
The F-22 uses the INTEGRITY-178B operating system from Green Hills Software, which is also used on the F-35, several commercial airliners and the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. Herbert J. Carlisle has said that the F-22 can datalink with the Tomahawk (missile). The F-22 uses a glass cockpit with no analog flight instruments. A side-stick controller and two throttles are the main flight controls. The stick is force sensitive and has limited movement. The cockpit interior lighting is fully night-vision goggle compatible. The monochrome head-up display by GEC (which has since become BAE Systems) offers a wide field of view and serves as a primary flight instrument for the pilot; information is also displayed upon six color liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The integrated control panel (ICP) is a keypad system for entering communications, navigation, and autopilot data. Two 3 × 4 in (7.6 × 10 cm) up-front displays located around the ICP are used to display integrated caution advisory/warning data, communications, navigation and identification (CNI) data and also serve as the stand-by flight instrumentation group and fuel quantity indicator. The stand-by flight group displays an artificial horizon, for basic instrument meteorological conditions. The 8 × 8 in (20 × 20 cm) primary multi-function display is located under the ICP, and is used for navigation and situation assessment. Three 6.25 × 6.25 in (15.9 × 15.9 cm) secondary multi-function displays are located around the PMFD for tactical information and stores management. The canopy is approximately 140 inches long, 45 inches wide, and 27 inches tall; it lacks a canopy bow for improved vision. An iridium-tin oxide coating gives the canopy a gold color and reflects radar waves. The ejection seat is a version of the ACES II (Advanced Concept Ejection Seat) commonly used in USAF aircraft, with a center-mounted ejection control. Improvements over the previous models include an active arm restraint system to reduce injury. The life support system integrates critical components to sustain the pilot, such as the on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS), and a breathing regulator/anti-g valve that controls flow and pressure to the mask and garments. The pilot’s protective garments are designed for chemical/biological/cold-water immersion protection, to counter g-forces and high altitudes, and provide thermal relief. The helmet incorporates active noise reduction for hearing protection. Suspicions regarding the performance of the OBOGS and life support equipment have been raised by several crashes.