“Nano Technology will make great leaps and bounds in the research of molecular chemistry and biology to be the next tranport system for the cure of diseases where the development of drugs of all kinds can be used to target specific cells and organs, even a greater understanding of the composite of matter, to create water into wine, by manipulating the structure of matter.” – Contributed by Oogle.
Warning : Please do not take your insulin injection when you are fasting or on a drip without food as the toxity can inflict damages especially with a low sugar count.
The Cure for Type II Diabetes
Most patients inject insulin at the abdomen area and by the time the insulin reaches the feet and the eyes, the dosage is too little for prevention, but if you increase the dosage even higher, there will be toxity in the abdomen area.
The Cure and Solution
Using Nano technology, it is possible to encapsulate a molecule of insulin via a transport system which will target the molecules and DNA of lets say the eyes, where the info and target will be compared until it reaches its destination to release the payload. As such, the future of medicine will be using this technology to treat any organs or areas in the body, where even the payload and the frequency can be controlled, a cure for all diseases.
– Contributed by Oogle.
Molecular cloning is the laboratory process used to create recombinant DNA. It is one of two widely-used methods (along with polymerase chain reaction, abbr. PCR) used to direct the replication of any specific DNA sequence chosen by the experimentalist. The fundamental difference between the two methods is that molecular cloning involves replication of the DNA within a living cell, while PCR replicates DNA in the test tube, free of living cells.
Formation of recombinant DNA requires a cloning vector, a DNA molecule that will replicate within a living cell. Vectors are generally derived from plasmids or viruses, and represent relatively small segments of DNA that contain necessary genetic signals for replication, as well as additional elements for convenience in inserting foreign DNA, identifying cells that contain recombinant DNA, and, where appropriate, expressing the foreign DNA. The choice of vector for molecular cloning depends on the choice of host organism, the size of the DNA to be cloned, and whether and how the foreign DNA is to be expressed. The DNA segments can be combined by using a variety of methods, such as restriction enzyme/ligase cloning or Gibson assembly.
In standard cloning protocols, the cloning of any DNA fragment essentially involves seven steps: (1) Choice of host organism and cloning vector, (2) Preparation of vector DNA, (3) Preparation of DNA to be cloned, (4) Creation of recombinant DNA, (5) Introduction of recombinant DNA into the host organism, (6) Selection of organisms containing recombinant DNA, (7) Screening for clones with desired DNA inserts and biological properties. These steps are described in some detail in a related article (molecular cloning).
Following transplantation into the host organism, the foreign DNA contained within the recombinant DNA construct may or may not be expressed. That is, the DNA may simply be replicated without expression, or it may be transcribed and translated so that a recombinant protein is produced. Generally speaking, expression of a foreign gene requires restructuring the gene to include sequences that are required for producing a mRNA molecule that can be used by the host’s translational apparatus (e.g. promoter, translational initiation signal, and transcriptional terminator). Specific changes to the host organism may be made to improve expression of the ectopic gene. In addition, changes may be needed to the coding sequences as well, to optimize translation, make the protein soluble, direct the recombinant protein to the proper cellular or extracellular location, and stabilize the protein from degradation.[7
- Recombinant human insulin. Recombinant insulin has almost completely replaced insulin obtained from animal sources (e.g. pigs and cattle) for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. A variety of different recombinant insulin preparations are in widespread use. Recombinant insulin is synthesized by inserting the human insulin gene into E. coli, which then produces insulin for human use.